Clinical Syndrome Narratives

B10. The examinee has been experiencing a significant amount of anxiety. Similar individuals worry a great deal about different aspects of their lives and feel a high level of distress. Often such people have episodes of intense anxiety during which they may become unable to function, sick with the worry that a dreadful event is about to happen. There are others who develop phobias and fear everyday situations that they then try to avoid. Still others become preoccupied with ideas they cannot disregard, or develop compulsions that must be carried out to avoid an even greater level of discomfort. In any event, the indications were that the experience of anxiety was a significant problem for .pn at the time of the testing.

B11. Judging by the test scores, the examinee is prone to anger. Similar people take offense over seemingly minor issues. In some cases they appear to be always looking for injustices, and are likely to confront the other person with whatever objections they may have. Additionally, they typically have an explosive temper, likely to erupt in an angry outburst at a moment’s notice. These are difficult people at best: excitable and irritable, they often have a history of treating others in a rough or mean manner, and of angrily “flying off the handle” whenever they are confronted or opposed.

B12. According to the Emotional Assessment System (EAS), the examinee has been sad, and has perhaps demonstrated a dysphoric or melancholic mood. Similar people show diminished interest in their daily activities, and do not derive much pleasure from their current involvements. Life may become a burden, an unwanted task that has little personal meaning. Making decisions, even about minor matters, may be difficult, with the individual being encumbered by indecisiveness. At times the examinee may have crying spells. Most concerning, suicide ideation may be present. Low self-esteem and feelings of worthlessness may be accompanied by feelings of guilt about past actions. Individuals with similar test profiles typically experience vegetative symptoms, such as a loss of appetite, sleep difficulties, fatigability, and a low energy level. They may move at a slow pace, or become anxious and agitated.

B13. Individuals with similar test scores can be expected to have an elevated mood and some tendency toward grandiosity. They experience a decreased need for sleep. They are typically over-energized and overly talkative, sometimes speaking fast in a pressured sort of way. They may demonstrate a flight of ideas, going from one topic to the next in a disorganized manner. At times they become overly invested in a project, or in pleasurable activities, and can no longer follow a reasonable daily schedule. No longer able to moderate their activities, they become too driven by their goals to conduct their business effectively.

B14. Judging from the score that the examinee obtained on the EAS, he/she is preoccupied with somatic complaints. Similar individuals worry excessively about possible problems with their bodily functions. Typically they do not restrict their concerns to one area of functioning but, rather, complain about a variety of different issues or pains. They become increasingly more limited in the activities in which they are able or willing to participate. Secondary benefits may also play a role, as the individual is able to obtain attention or special considerations as a result of his/her medical condition. Anxiety, irritability, or sadness may arise as emotional repercussions of the somatic concerns. Finally, similar individuals feel they have no control over their medical problems and are pessimistic or even hopeless about the prospect of improvement.

B15. Symptoms of an eating disorder included the examinee experiencing a great deal of discomfort with the way he/she looks. Additionally, he/she may have refused to maintain appropriate body weight, or may have become very heavy. A preoccupation with food, with dieting, with exercising, or with gaining or losing weight, may be present. There may have been pathological eating behaviors, such as his/her eating where no one can see, eating excessive amounts of food during a short period of time, intentionally inducing vomiting, or using laxatives, diuretics, diet pills, or enemas.

B16. The examinee shows a maladaptive pattern of alcohol or drug abuse. Similar individuals exhibit a significant impairment of their performance and behavior in association to the substance abuse.   They may spend an inordinate amount of time obtaining alcohol or drugs, and may behave in an unacceptable social manner as a result of their chemical consumption. They typically continue to use alcohol or drugs after being aware that their chemical consumption has persistent and deleterious effects on their lives.

B17. Individuals with similar test profiles are distrusting and suspicious, typically assuming that others would like to cause them harm. They may spouse delusional ideas, perhaps believing that other people are plotting against them, persecuting them, or deceiving them in some way. They question the loyalty of the people around them, constructing reasons why the support of those individuals cannot be counted upon. Typically they interact in a guarded manner, and are reluctant to reveal much about themselves, or bring people into their confidence. Similar individuals read hidden meanings on actions or events, interpreting neutral developments as indications of the malevolent intent they expect from others. They are likely to remember any past slights or injustices, and use those to justify their distrust.

B18. The thinking of similar individuals is typically disorganized. They may jump from one topic to the next and explain themselves poorly, so that they cannot be clearly understood. The examinee may suffer from delusions or hallucinations. He/she may be prone to misinterpreting the statements or actions of others, believing these communications or observations to mean something different than what they meant. He/she may also act in peculiar or odd ways.

B19. There were indications that the examinee has been under a great deal of stress. People with similar test profiles feel burdened by difficulties with their jobs, personal relationships, family responsibilities, medical problems, or financial demands. They see their needs as outweighing their resources so that they may be stretched too thin in making their psychological ends meet.

B20. The examinee reported having been exposed to a traumatic event that threatened his/her life or caused intense fear. This event appears to have left him/her with a stress disorder. Similar individuals have recurrent and distressing recollections of the event. The recollections may consist of painful images, recurrent nightmares, frightening dreams, or episodes in which they feel as if there were back in the traumatizing situation. They become distressed when they are reminded of the traumatic event. To avoid that distress, they typically shun thoughts, feelings or conversations about the event, as well as places connected with the trauma. The person may be interpersonally distant and experience diminished interest in his/her daily activities. Irritability, difficulty concentrating, a sleep disturbance, hypervigilance, and an exaggerated startle response may be present.

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B23. When the examinee is compared to other people taking the Emotional Assessment System, the items he/she endorsed were at a higher level of severity than the average. This finding suggests that his/her symptoms present a significant problem and may be rather difficult.

B24. The examinee obtained an elevation on the Impairment scale. Similar people have trouble functioning in their daily lives, doing what is expected of them at home or work. In the more extreme cases, the person has been hospitalized repeatedly and may have difficulty taking care of their own personal hygiene.